The first engine to emerge from Hackworth's Soho Works at Shildon, was the "Magnet" (No.24), which entered service on the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1835. This appeared to be similar to the "Wilberforce" locomotives with some improvements.With Timothy Hackworth not only being the Locomotive Engineer for the Stockton & Darlington Railway, he was also the main contractor, which meant that as he was responsible for locomotive maintenance on the line, he would be maintaining his own products. It was therefore in his own interests to produce first class locomotives. Strangely only one locomotive was built, at a cost of £1050, including tenders.In 1844 it was valued at £1100. It was mostly employed on passenger trains, which was odd, given the fact that it was probably the most powerful locomotive on the line in the early years of its life.

It was involved in a collision with some waggons in 1838 and in 1842 it was transferred to 'merchandize' traffic duties. It was loaned to the North of England Railway as one of the first trains on that line. In 1846 the number 24 was allocated to another locomotive, so presumeably, it was taken out of service.

In 1835 the "Enterprise", entered service, built by W. & A. Kitching, at their works in Darlington, based on the plans of the "Magnet".

In 1835, Hackworth produced an incline engine for the "Black Boy" Incline which remained in service until 1874. This was later known as "Penn's Trunk Engine".The "Arrow" designed and built by Hackworth in 1837 was based on the locomotive built for Russia, and was completed in that year. There were conflicting reports on the success of this locomotive.

By 1840 Timothy Hackworth had expanded his business and his workforce exceeded 100 men. Although the initial euphoria over the introduction of the locomotive had diminished, his enthusiasm and energy had not, and he was very much aware of the many problems that beset the railway engineering industry. He retired from the Stockton & Darlington Railway after 15 years of devoted service. His intentions being to concentrate his efforts on his successful engineering works in Shildon which now covered some 6 acres. In the same year the "Coxhoe" and the "Evenwood", being six-wheeled coupled engines, were completed for the Clarence Railway, the bitter rivals of the Stockton and Darlington Railway. He had built up a thriving business in stationary engines and the application of knowledge and skills had gained him a reputation within the mining industry for his innovative and well manufactured machinery. He built machines for the rope-making, brick-making and woodworking industry as well as hydraulic presses, grinding mills and engineering tools. He designed a boiler, which gained a certain amount of notoriety, called the "Manchester" which were sold in considerable numbers, being manufactured by Daniel Adamson, an ex-apprentice, at his works in Manchester. At the opening of the Great North of England Railway in 1841, the Stockton and Darlington Railway loaned 4 locomotives, two of these were the "Magnet" and the "Tory", which together pulled an immense train of coals from Darlington to York.


Initially, the workshops consisted of a long building consisting of joiner's shop and blacksmith's shop, and a small engine shed with sufficient room to house 2 locomotives. In 1833 Timothy Hackworth took over the workshops when he concluded his agreement with the Stockton & Darlington Railway Company for the contract for working the railway.

The name "Soho" was suggested by Joseph Pease, when he enquired of Timothy Hackworth the name he intended giving his new works, at which time Hackworth had not considered the matter. In 1850 the buildings were :-

The erecting shop which was separated from the main buildings was built at a later stage of development of the works and could accomodate upto 10 locomotives at any one time. Complete with a fitting shop and pattern rooms, it was well equipped with suitable machinery to provide for the construction of locomotives. The pattern rooms were accomodated on the first floor of the building.The building was alas demolished some years ago, along with the main buildings, which formed the backbone of the works.The properties at Shildon bore no resemblance to the ramshackle sheds of the Stockton & Darlington Railway, from which Hackworth had carried out his labours a few years earlier.

He was soon, busily engaged in fulfilling orders for stationary and locomotive engines.

Several new locomotives emerged from Shildon over the next few years. These were the "Beehive", the "Tory", the "Whig, the"Briton", the "Auckland", the "Despatch", and the "Dart".

The "Briton" and the "Beehive" were built on similar lines to the "Magnet", whereas the "Tory" built in 1838 was of a new type.The "Whig" and the "Auckland" were built shortly after the "Tory" from the same plans.

The "Whig" was built by W. & A. Kitching and featured in the Stockton & Darlington Railway Jubilee in 1875, being then owned by the Consett Water Company and used in their works.

Wm. Lister built three locomotives, namely, the "Middlesbrough, the "Etherley" and the "Ocean", at their works in Darlington.It is worthy of note the circumstances under which these three locomotives were built. The "Tory" was taken off the railway and taken to Wm. Lister's works, where drawings were prepared, under the control of Lister's foreman, John Roseby. From these drawings the three locomotives were built.

A signed statement to this effect was made by two of Lister's workmen, who helped build the engines.

"We William Jackson of 12 Raby Street Darlington in the County of Durham and William Mather of Number 4 Wallis's Yard Bondgate in the same town do hereby jointly and severally testify and declare that-being at the time workmen of William Listers Hopetown Foundry Darlington-We well remember Timothy Hackworth's "Tory" locomotive being brought into Lister's works and dimensioned drawings made therefrom under the direction of John Roseby (Lister's Foreman) and that three similar locomotives namely the 'Ocean' the 'Etherley' and the 'Middlesbro' were built by Lister from the said drawings for the Stockton & Darlington Railway Company. And further that we the said William Jackson and William Mather assisted in building the said three Engines. To this Declaration we subscribe our names in the prescence of two witnesses this Nineteenth day of November 1889.



The "Dart" No. 41 was built in 1839 for passenger trains and featured in the Jubilee of the Stockton & Darlington Railway in 1875, together with the "Despatch" and the "Auckland". They were still in service on the Railway at that time. the original cost was £1520 which included the tender. A larger boiler was fitted in 1860 when it was rebuilt. It was withdrawn from service in 1880.

Several other locomotives were built around this time for Coal Companies, among these were the "Prince Albert", the "Kellor", the "Buddle" (renamed 'Braddyll' and preserved at Shildon ) and the "Wellington" for the South Hetton Coal Company. They were used to haul the coal waggons to the head of the incline leading to Seaham Harbour.Almost all of the locomotives on the Clarence Railway were built by Timothy Hackworth. Two of these were the "Seymour" and the "Pilot". They were built to similar designs as those used on the Stockton & Darlington Railway used for carrying coal. The speed on this railway was limited to 8m.p.h.

The last two locomotives built for the Stockton and Darlington Railway were 2 very powerful engines called the "Leader" and the "Trader" in 1842, with outside cylinders fixed at the trailing end of the boiler and four feet, six-wheeled coupled wheels. Originally "Leader" had 14in x 22in cylinders, these were later modified to 16in x 24 in. It was withdrawn from service in 1869. "Trader" was sold to the Peases' West Colliery in 1868, however its boiler exploded shortly afterwards.

Several other locomotives were built at this time; the "Prince Albert" for the Earl of Durham's Railway; "John" and "Samson" for the Seghill Colliery Railway; the "Hudson", as well as locomotives for, the Stanhope and Tyne Railway, the Seaton Delavel Colliery Railway, the Cramlington Coal Company.

The "Derwent", designed by Timothy Hackworth, built by W. & A. Kitching, Darlington in 1845 and similar in design to "Leader".Withdrawn from service in 1869, it was sold to Pease & Partners for use on their colliery lines and spent some time at the Construction of the Waskerley reservoir. It was presented to the NER in 1898 for preservation and after restoration it joined "Locomotion" on a plinth at Bank Top Station, Darlington.It was moved to the Darlington Railway Centre & Museum in the 1970's.The locomotive ran under its own steam in the 1925 Railway Centenary procession and on trials the day before the procession, achieved a speed of 12 m.p.h. It took part in the Stephenson Centenary celebrations at Newcastle in 1881 and the Queen's Diamond Jubilee in 1887. It stood on a plinth on Bank Top Station, Darlington for many years, alongside "Locomotion" and in the 1960's, it was removed, restored in near original condition and is now on display at the Darlington Railway Centre and Museum.